Gothic revival style house 2018

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval, gothic revival style house 2018 in contrast to the styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns,,, and label stops.

The Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with and a re-awakening of or belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism. Ultimately, the "" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied considerably in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.

In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread rapidly to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas; the 19th and early 20th centuries saw the construction of very large numbers of Gothic Revival and structures worldwide. The influence of the Revival had nevertheless peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the, and sometimes in outright opposition, such as, gained ground, and by the 1930s the architecture of the was generally condemned or ignored. The later 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the in 1958.


The rise of in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre- Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury. The Gothic Revival was also paralleled and supported by "", which had its roots in concerns with survivals and curiosities. As "" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories also grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as and took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation.

Gothic Revival also took on political connotations; with the "rational" and "radical" Neoclassical style being seen as associated with and (as evidenced by its use in the United States and to a lesser extent in France), the more spiritual and traditional Gothic Revival became associated with and, which was reflected by the choice of styles for the rebuilt government centres of the (holding the ) in London and in.

In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical gave rise to the genre, beginning with (1764) by, and inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo- of "". Poems such as "" by recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of romance. In, the Gothic Revival also had a grounding in literary fashions.

Survival and revival[]

began at the near Paris, and the in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like at Westminster. However, Gothic architecture did not die out completely in the 16th century but style instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects; at and Universities, and in the construction of churches in increasingly isolated rural districts of England, France, Germany, the and in Spain.

In, in 1646, the architect constructed (completed 1658) for the in, which had been under construction since 1390; there, the Gothic context of the structure overrode considerations of the current architectural mode., a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice.

Likewise, Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the later 17th century, as shown in and, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary. Sir 's for,, and, later, 's west towers of, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.

In the mid-18th century, with the rise of, an increased interest and awareness of the among some influential connoisseurs created a more appreciative approach to selected arts, beginning with church architecture, the tomb monuments of royal and noble personages, stained glass, and late Gothic illuminated manuscripts. Other Gothic arts, such as tapestries and metalwork, continued to be disregarded as barbaric and crude, however sentimental and nationalist associations with historical figures were as strong in this early revival as purely aesthetic concerns.

(such as philosopher and writer and architect ), began to appreciate the character of ruins—"picturesque" becoming a new aesthetic quality—and those mellowing effects of time that the Japanese call and that independently admired, mildly tongue-in-cheek, as "the true rust of the Barons' wars." The "Gothick" details of Walpole's Twickenham villa, begun in 1749, appealed to the tastes of the time, and were fairly quickly followed by James Talbot at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire. By the 1770s, thoroughly neoclassical architects such as and were prepared to provide Gothic details in drawing-rooms, libraries and chapels and William Beckford's romantic vision of a Gothic abbey, in Wiltshire.

Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland., constructed from 1746, with design input from, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional style houses that incorporated some external features of the Scots baronial style. Robert Adam's houses in this style include and in Berwickshire and in East Lothian, but it is most clearly seen at, Ayrshire, remodelled by Adam from 1777. The eccentric landscape designer even attempted to "improve" Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions.

A younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for John Britton's series Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, which began appearing in 1807. In 1817, wrote an Attempt... to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, "a text-book for the architectural student". Its long antique title is descriptive: Attempt to discriminate the styles of English architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation; preceded by a sketch of the Grecian and Roman orders, with notices of nearly five hundred English buildings. The categories he used were,,, and. It went through numerous editions, was still being republished by 1881, and has been reissued in the 21st century.

Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, Gothic Revival was used across Europe, throughout the British Empire, and in the United States for public buildings and homes for the people who could afford the style, but the most common use for Gothic Revival architecture was in the building of churches. Churches all over in the countries that were influenced by the Gothic Revival, small and large, whether isolated in small settlements or in the big city, there is at least one church done in Gothic Revival style. Major examples of Gothic cathedrals in the U.S. include the in New York City and (also known as "the Cathedral Church of Saints Peter and Paul") on Mount St. Alban in northwest. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is in.

Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the many. Although Gothic Revival began to lose force and popularity after the third quarter of the 19th century in the commercial, residential and industrial fields, some buildings such as churches, schools, colleges and universities were still constructed in the Gothic style (here often known as "Collegiate Gothic" style) which remained popular in England, Canada and in the United States (the United States has the most of Gothic Revival style architecture for Schools and Colleges/Universities) until well into the early to mid-20th century. Only when new materials, like steel and glass along with concern for function in everyday working life and saving space in the cities, meaning the need to build up instead of out, began to take hold did the Gothic Revival start to disappear from popular building requests.


The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture. Classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace and lattice work were applied to a wide range of Gothic Revival objects. Some examples of Gothic Revivals influence can be found in heraldic motifs in coats of arms, painted furniture with elaborate painted scenes like the whimsical Gothic detailing in English furniture is traceable as far back as 's house in Arlington Street, London (1740s), and Gothic fretwork in chairbacks and glazing patterns of bookcases is a familiar feature of 's Director (1754, 1762), where, for example, the three-part bookcase employs Gothic details with Rococo profusion, on a symmetrical form. exemplifies in its furnishings the "Regency Gothic" style. Gothic Revival also includes the reintroduction of medieval clothes and dances in historical reenactments staged among historically-interested followers, especially in the second part of the 19th century, and which have been revived over a hundred years later in the popularity of so-called "renaissance fairs/festivals" in several states (such as in Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia). Parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.

By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in, and Gothic blind arcading could decorate a ceramic pitcher. The illustrated catalogue for the of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery.

In 1847, 8,000 British coins were minted in condition with the design using an ornate reverse in keeping with the revived style. Considered by collectors to be particularly beautiful, they are known as 'Gothic crowns'. The design was repeated in 1853, again in proof. A similar two shilling coin, the 'Gothic ' was minted for circulation from 1851 to 1887.

Romanticism and nationalism[]

Gothic façade of the in France, built between 1499 and 1508, which later inspired Neo-gothic revival in the 19th century

French neo-Gothic had its roots in the French, where it was created in the 12th century. Gothic architecture was sometimes known during the medieval period as the "Opus Francigenum", (the "French Art"). French scholar wrote in 1816 that "Gothic architecture has beauties of its own", which marked the beginning of the Gothic Revival in France. Starting in 1828, Alexandre Brogniart, the director of the, produced fired enamel paintings on large panes of plate glass, for 's, an important early French commission in Gothic taste, preceded mainly by some Gothic features in a few jardins paysagers.

The French Gothic Revival was set on sounder intellectual footings by a pioneer,, who founded the Societé des Antiquaires de Normandie at a time when antiquaire still meant a connoisseur of antiquities, and who published his great work on architecture in French Normandy in 1830 (Summerson 1948). The following year 's historical romance novel appeared, in which the great was at once a setting and a protagonist in a hugely popular work of fiction. Hugo intended his book to awaken a concern for the surviving Gothic architecture left in Europe, however, rather than to initiate a craze for neo-Gothic in contemporary life. In the same year that Notre-Dame de Paris appeared, the new French restored monarchy established an office in the Royal French Government of Inspector-General of Ancient Monuments, a post which was filled in 1833 by, who became the secretary of a new Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1837. This was the Commission that instructed to report on the condition of the in 1840. Following this, Viollet le Duc set to restore most of the symbolic buildings in France including Notre Dame de Paris, Vézelay,,, the famous on its peaked coastal island,, and in. When France's first prominent neo-Gothic church was built, the, Paris, begun in September 1846 and consecrated 30 November 1857, the architect chosen was, significantly, of German extraction,, (1790–1853); the design was significantly modified by Gau's assistant,, in the later stages, to produce the pair of flèches that crown the west end.

, finally completed in 1880 (though construction started originally in 1248) with a façade 157 metres tall and a 43 metres tall

Meanwhile, in Germany, interest in the, which had begun construction in 1248 and was still unfinished at the time of the revival, began to reappear. The 1820s "Romantic" movement brought back interest, and work began once more in 1842, significantly marking a German return of Gothic architecture. The Prague cathedral was also completed late

Because of in the early 19th century, the Germans, French and English all claimed the original Gothic architecture of the 12th century era as originating in their own country. The English boldly coined the term "Early English" for "Gothic", a term that implied Gothic architecture was an English creation. In his 1832 edition of Notre Dame de Paris, author Victor Hugo said "Let us inspire in the nation, if it is possible, love for the national architecture", implying that "Gothic" is France's national heritage. In Germany, with the completion of Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s, at the time its summit was the world's tallest building, the Cathedral was seen as the height of Gothic architecture. Other major completions of Gothic cathedrals were of (with twin completed from 1869–1872), (with a 161-meter tower from 1890) and in Prague (1844–1929).

In Belgium, a 15th-century church in burned down in 1896. King supported its replacement by a cathedral-like church after the style of the also Neo-Gothic in and Cologne Cathedral: the. In, the largely unfinished building drawn in 1526 as the seat of the, finally got built in the early 20th century strictly following 's design, and became the 'new' north wing of the City Hall.

In, the 's temporary façade erected for the Medici-House of Lorraine nuptials in 1588–1589, was dismantled, and the west end of the cathedral stood bare again until 1864, when a competition was held to design a new façade suitable to 's original structure and the fine next to it. This competition was won by, and so work on his polychrome design and panels of was begun in 1876 and completed by 1887, creating the Neo-Gothic western façade. In Indonesia, (the former colony of the ), the was begun in 1891 and completed in 1901 by Dutch architect Antonius Dijkmans; while further north in the islands of the Philippines, the, designed by architects Genaro Palacios and and was consecrated in 1891 in the still Spanish colony.

In Scotland, while a similar Gothic style to that used further south in England was adopted by figures including (1832–98) in secular architecture it was marked by the re-adoption of the style. Important for the adoption of the style in the early 19th century was Abbotsford House, the residence the novelist and poet, Sir. Re-built for him from 1816, it became a model for the modern revival of the baronial style. Common features borrowed from 16th- and 17th-century houses included gateways,, pointed and. The style was popular across Scotland and was applied to many relatively modest dwellings by architects such as (1789–1870), (1803–76), (1787–1879), (c. 1847–1914) and (1864–1929) and in urban contexts, including the building of in Edinburgh (from the 1850s) as well as the National at Stirling (1859–69). The rebuilding of as a baronial palace and its adoption as a royal retreat from 1855-8 confirmed the popularity of the style.

In the United States, the first "Gothic stile" church (as opposed to churches with Gothic elements) was, New Haven, Connecticut. It was designed by the prominent American Architect between 1812 and 1814, even while he was building his right next to this radical new "Gothic-style" church. Its cornerstone was laid in 1814, and it was consecrated in 1816. It thus predates, often said to be the first Gothic-revival church in London, by a decade. Though built of stone with arched windows and doors, parts of its Gothic tower and its battlements were wood. Gothic buildings were subsequently erected by Episcopal congregations in Connecticut at (1823), St. John's in Kent (1823–26), St. Andrew's in Marble Dale (1821–23). These were followed by Town's design for (1827), which incorporated Gothic elements such as buttresses into fabric of the church. in Troy, New York, was constructed in 1827–1828 as an exact copy of the Town's design for Trinity Church, New Haven, but using local stone; due to changes in the original, St. Paul's is closer to Town's original design than Trinity itself. In the 1830s, architects began to copy specific English Gothic and Gothic Revival Churches, and these "mature Gothic Revival" buildings "made the domestic Gothic style architecture which preceded it seem primitive and old-fashioned". Since then, Gothic Revival architecture has spread to and across America.

There are many examples of. The first major Gothic Revival structure in Canada was in, which was designed in 1824. During the many homesteads along the were destroyed. Most of the homes were built in the style; after their destruction they were rebuilt in the Gothic Revival or "Jigsaw Gothic" style. The capital city of is full of Gothic Revival architecture. The buildings which were built in the last decades of the 19th century were built in the Gothic Revival style, as were many other buildings in the city and outlying areas, showing how popular the Gothic Revival movement had become. Other examples of Canadian Gothic Revival architecture are the, (1905–08), the, (1905–08), and, (1913–16), all in Ottawa by.

Gothic as a moral force[]

Pugin and "truth" in architecture[]

In the late 1820s,, still a teenager, was working for two highly visible employers, providing Gothic detailing for luxury goods. For the Royal furniture makers Morel and Seddon he provided designs for redecorations for the elderly at in a Gothic taste suited to the setting. For the royal silversmiths, Pugin provided designs for silver from 1828, using the 14th-century Anglo-French Gothic vocabulary that he would continue to favour later in designs for the new Palace of Westminster. Between 1821 and 1838 Pugin and his father published a series of volumes of, the first two entitled, Specimens of Gothic Architecture, and the following three, Examples of Gothic Architecture, that were to remain both in print and the standard references for Gothic Revivalists for at least the next century.

In Contrasts (1836), Pugin expressed his admiration not only for medieval art but for the whole medieval ethos, claiming that Gothic architecture is the product of a purer society. In The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841), he suggested that modern craftsmen seeking to emulate the style of medieval workmanship should also reproduce its methods. Pugin believed Gothic was true Christian architecture, and even said "the pointed arch was produced by the Catholic faith".

Pugin's most famous project is in London, which was largely destroyed in a fire in 1834. His part in the design consisted of two campaigns, 1836–1837 and again in 1844 and 1852, with the classicist as his nominal superior (whether the pair worked as a collegial partnership or if Barry acted as Pugin's superior is not entirely clear). Pugin provided the external decoration and the interiors, while Barry designed the symmetrical layout of the building, causing Pugin to remark, "All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classic body".

Ruskin and Venetian Gothic[]

Main article:

supplemented Pugin's ideas in his two hugely influential theoretical works, (1849) and (1853). Finding his architectural ideal in, Ruskin proposed that Gothic buildings excelled above all other architecture because of the "sacrifice" of the stone-carvers in intricately decorating every stone. By declaring the to be "the central building of the world", Ruskin argued the case for Gothic government buildings as Pugin had done for churches, though mostly only in theory. When his ideas were put into practice, Ruskin often disliked the result, although he supported many architects, such as Thomas Deane and Benjamin Woodward, and was reputed to have designed some of the decorations for that pair's.

Ecclesiology and funerary style[]

In England, the was undergoing a revival of and ideology in the form of the and it became desirable to build large numbers of new churches to cater for the growing population, and cemeteries for their hygienic burials. This found ready exponents in the universities, where the was forming. Its proponents believed that Gothic was the only style appropriate for a parish church, and favoured a particular era of Gothic architecture—the "". The, through its journal The Ecclesiologist, was so savagely critical of new church buildings that were below its exacting standards and its pronouncements were followed so avidly that it became the epicentre of the flood of that affected most of the Anglican cathedrals and parish churches in England and Wales.

, was a new-built of 1820–24, partly built using a grant of £8,333 towards its construction with money voted by as a result of the Church Building Act of 1818. It is often said to be the first Gothic Revival church in London, and, as put it: "probably the only church of its time in which the main roof was groined throughout in stone". Nonetheless, the parish was firmly, and the original arrangement, modified in the 1860s, was as a "preaching church" dominated by the pulpit, with a small altar and wooden galleries over the nave aisle.

The development of the private was occurring at the same time as the movement; Sir pioneered the first cemetery in the Gothic style at in 1837, with chapels, gates, and decorative features in the Gothic manner, attracting the interest of contemporary architects such as, Barry, and. The style was immediately hailed a success and universally replaced the previous preference for classical design.

However, not every architect or client was swept away by this tide. Although Gothic Revival succeeded in becoming an increasingly familiar style of architecture, the attempt to associate it with the notion of high church superiority, as advocated by Pugin and the ecclesiological movement, was anathema to those with ecumenical or nonconformist principles. They looked to adopt it solely for its aesthetic romantic qualities, to combine it with other styles, or look to northern European for a more plain appearance; or in some instances all three of these, as at the non-denominational designed by in 1840.

Viollet-le-Duc and Iron Gothic[]

France had lagged slightly in entering the neo-Gothic scene, but produced a major figure in the revival in. As well as a powerful and influential theorist, Viollet-le-Duc was a leading architect whose genius lay in restoration. He believed in restoring buildings to a state of completion that they would not have known even when they were first built, theories he applied to his restorations of the walled city of, and to and in Paris. In this respect he differed from his English counterpart Ruskin, as he often replaced the work of mediaeval stonemasons. His rational approach to Gothic stood in stark contrast to the revival's romanticist origins.

Throughout his career he remained in a quandary as to whether iron and masonry should be combined in a building. Iron had in fact been used in Gothic buildings since the earliest days of the revival. It was only with Ruskin and the archaeological Gothic's demand for historical truth that iron, whether it was visible or not, was deemed improper for a Gothic building.

This argument began to collapse in the mid-19th century as great prefabricated structures such as the glass and iron and the glazed courtyard of the Oxford University Museum were erected, which appeared to embody Gothic principles through iron. Between 1863 and 1872 Viollet-le-Duc published his Entretiens sur l'architecture, a set of daring designs for buildings that combined iron and masonry. Though these projects were never realised, they influenced several generations of designers and architects, notably in Spain and, in England,, Viollet's foremost English follower and translator, whose masterpiece was.

The flexibility and strength of cast-iron freed neo-Gothic designers to create new structural gothic forms impossible in stone, as in 's cast-iron bridge in, New York (1860s; illustration, below). Vaux enlists openwork forms derived from Gothic blind-arcading and window tracery to express the spring and support of the arching bridge, in flexing forms that presage.

  • Cast-iron gothic tracery supports a bridge by,, New York City.

Collegiate Gothic[]

Main article:

In the United States, Collegiate Gothic was a late and literal resurgence of the English Gothic Revival, adapted for American university campuses. The firm of was an early and important exponent, transforming the campuses of, and the in the 1890s.

The movement continued into the 20th century, with Cope & Stewardson's campus for (1900–09), 's buildings at (1910s), 's design for the (1913), and ' reconstruction of the campus of (1920s). 's Gothic Revival skyscraper on the 's campus, the (1926) exhibited very Gothic stylings both inside and out, while utilizing modern technologies to make the building taller.

Vernacular adaptations[]

Main article:

houses and small churches became common in North America and other places in the late 19th century. These structures adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, and towers to traditional American. The invention of the and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid of the High Gothic. But, in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were relatively unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables. Probably the best-known example of Carpenter Gothic is a house in, that used for the background of his famous painting.

of imported the Gothic Revival style to New Zealand, and designed Gothic Revival churches in both wood and stone. in New Zealand designed wooden churches in the Gothic Revival style, e.g.. by is in the French Gothic style, and was the first Gothic design church built in ferro-concrete. The style also found favour in the southern New Zealand city of, where the wealth brought in by the of the 1860s allowed for substantial stone edifices to be constructed, among them 's and the -designed, both constructed from hard dark and a local white limestone,.

Other Gothic Revival churches were built in Australia, in particular in Melbourne and Sydney, see.

In 19th-century northwestern, the informal Slavine Architectural School introduced Gothic Revival elements into its vernacular ecclesiastical and residential architecture. These included geometric decorations based on the triangle on apses, domes and external, as well as sharp-pointed window and door arches. The largest project of the Slavine School is the cathedral (1850–1853), though later churches like those in Zhivovtsi (1858), Mitrovtsi (1871), Targovishte (1870–1872),, Gorna Kovachitsa (1885) and Bistrilitsa (1887–1890) display more prominent vernacular Gothic Revival features.

20th century[]

The Gothic style dictated the use of structural members in, leading to tall, buttressed buildings with interior columns of masonry and tall, narrow windows. But, by the start of the 20th century, technological developments such as the, the and the made this approach obsolete. Steel framing supplanted the non-ornamental functions of and, providing wider open interiors with fewer columns interrupting the view.

Some architects persisted in using Neo-Gothic tracery as applied ornamentation to an iron skeleton underneath, for example in 's 1913 skyscraper in New York and 's 1922 in Chicago. But, over the first half of the century, Neo-Gothic was supplanted by, although some modernist architects saw the Gothic tradition of architectural form entirely in terms of the "honest expression" of the technology of the day, and saw themselves as heirs to that tradition, with their use of rectangular frames and exposed iron girders.

In spite of this, the Gothic Revival continued to exert its influence, simply because many of its more massive projects were still being built well into the second half of the 20th century, such as 's and the (1907–1990). became a leading force in American Gothic, with his most ambitious project the in New York (claimed to be the largest Cathedral in the world), as well as Collegiate Gothic buildings at. Cram said "the style hewn out and perfected by our ancestors [has] become ours by uncontested inheritance."

Though the number of new Gothic Revival buildings declined sharply after the 1930s, they continue to be built. The cathedral of was constructed between the late 1950s and 2005. A new church in the Gothic style is planned for St. John Vianney Parish in. A new building currently under construction in will adopt the neo-gothic style of the rest of the courtyard it is being built in.

  • , whose construction ran from 1903 to 1978

  • Passion Façade of La in Barcelona, Spain (cranes digitally removed)


By 1872, the Gothic Revival was mature enough in the United Kingdom that, an influential professor of design, could produce A History of the Gothic Revival, but the first extended essay on the movement that was written within the maturing field of was, The Gothic Revival. An Essay, which appeared in 1928. The architect and writer covered the subject of the Revival in an appreciative way in his in 1934. But the conventional early 20th century view of the architecture of the Gothic Revival was strongly dismissive, critics writing of "the nineteenth century architectural tragedy", ridiculing "the uncompromising ugliness" of the era's buildings and attacking the "sadistic hatred of beauty" of its architects. The 1950s saw further small signs of a recovery in the reputation of Revival architecture. John Steegman's study, Consort of Taste (re-issued in 1970 as Victorian Taste, with a foreword by ), was published in 1950 and began a slow turn in the tide of opinion "towards a more serious and sympathetic assessment." This was followed by the foundation of the in 1958 and, in 1963, the publication of Victorian Architecture, an influential collection of essays edited by Peter Ferriday. By 2008, the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Victorian Society, the architecture of the Gothic Revival was more fully appreciated with some of its leading architects receiving scholarly attention and some of its best buildings, such as 's, being magnificently restored.

Details of architectural elements[]

These illustrations are from Charles Knight's Pictorial Gallery of the Arts, published in England in 1858. They show detailed perspectives on the incorporation of modern design influences in the Gothic style:

  • Architecture and arch elements

  • Decorative architectural elements

  • More examples of decorative architectural elements




  • , Manchester, England

  • Perpetual Adoration Church (Örökimádás templom), Budapest, Hungary

  • New Peterhof railstation building, 1857,, Russia

North America[]

  • in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

  • buildings of Boston College, United States

South America[]

  • Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro, a Neo-Gothic Basilic in of Chile.

Australia and New Zealand[]


  1. In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the earlier neo-Gothic Basilica of Notre Dame (1842) belongs to the Gothic Revival exported from Great Britain.
  2. The choice of the canonized wife of King was especially significant for the.
  3. The importance of the Cologne completion project in German-speaking lands has been explored by Michael J. Lewis, "The Politics of the German Gothic Revival: August Reichensperger".
  4. Pugin recorded his delight at the destruction of what he considered the wholly inadequate earlier restorations of and. "You have doubtless seen the accounts of the late great conflagration at Westminster. There is nothing much to regret...a vast amount of Soane's mixtures and Wyatt's heresies have been consigned to oblivion. Oh it was a glorious sight to see his composition mullions and cement pinnacles flying and cracking."
  5. , despite his sympathetic approach, recalled that during his Oxford years it was generally believed not only that was "the ugliest building in the world" but that its architect was, author of . The college was built to the designs of the noted architect.


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  6. [ The Late Completion of Prague and Cologne Cathedral]
  7. (in Dutch). City of Ostend. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  (Neo-Gothic church)
        (in Dutch). City of Ostend. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  (West tower of the burnt-down church)
  8. (in Dutch). City of Mechelen. Archived from on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
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  10. UNESCO World Heritage Centre.. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  11. Jarvis, Bishop Samuel, "An Address, delivered in the City of New Haven, at the Laying of the Corner-Stone of Trinity Church, May 17th, 1814", 1814
  12. Hobart, John Henry, The Moral Efficacy and the Positive Benefits of the Ordinances of the Gospel, 1816
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  23. Тулешков, Николай (2007). Славинските първомайстори (in Bulgarian). София: Арх & Арт.  . 
  24. Pearman, Hugh (13 March 2005).. Gabion: Retained Writing on Architecture. Hugh Pearman. Archived from on 18 March 2005. 
  25. Mooney, Caroline (27 April 2008).. The Catholic Moment.. Archived from on 15 May 2008. 
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  • Dixon, Roger; Muthesius, Stefan (1993).. London: Thames and Hudson.  . 
  • (2012). A History Of The Gothic Revival. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  . 
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  • Germann, Georg (1972).. London: Lund Humphries.  . 
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Further reading[]

  • Christian Amalvi, Le Goût du moyen âge, (Paris: Plon), 1996. The first French monograph on French Gothic Revival.
  • "Le Gothique retrouvé" avant Viollet-le-Duc. Exhibition, 1979. The first French exhibition concerned with French Neo-Gothic.
  • Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope, Of knights and spires: Gothic revival in France and Germany, 1989.  
  • Phoebe B Stanton, Pugin (New York, Viking Press 1972, ©1971).  
  • , 1948. "Viollet-le-Duc and the rational point of view" collected in Heavenly Mansions and other essays on Architecture
  • Sir, Modern Gothic Architecture (1873), Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture (1913), and three-volume Gothic Architecture in France, England and Italy (1915)

External links[]

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