Ivy league style 2018

This article is about the group of colleges and the athletic conference that gave the group its name. For other uses, see .

The Ivy League is a collegiate comprising sports teams from eight private in the . The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group beyond the sports context. The eight members are , , , , , the , , and . The term Ivy League has connotations of , , and social .

While the term was in use as early as 1933, it became official only after the formation of the athletic conference in 1954. Seven of the eight schools were founded during the (Cornell was founded in 1865). Ivy League institutions account for seven of the nine chartered before the ; the other two are and the .

Ivy League schools are generally viewed as some of the most prestigious, and are ranked among the best universities worldwide by . All eight universities place in the top fourteen of the U.S. News & World Report 2018 , including the top four schools and five of the top eight. U.S. News has named a member of the Ivy League as the best national university in each of the past eighteen years ending with the 2018 rankings: Princeton eleven times, Harvard twice, and the two schools tied for first five times.

Undergraduate enrollments range from about 4,000 to 14,000, making them larger than those of a typical private and smaller than a typical public . Total enrollments, including graduate students, range from approximately 6,400 at Dartmouth to over 20,000 at Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, and Penn. Ivy League range from Brown's .5 billion to Harvard's .5 billion, the of any academic institution in the world.

Locations of Ivy League universities

Contents

Members

Ivy League universities have some of the largest university in the world, which allows the universities to provide many resources for their academic programs and research endeavors. As of 2014, Harvard University has an endowment of .4 billion. Additionally, each university receives millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state governments.

Institution Location Athletic nickname Enrollment 2017 Endowment Academic staff Colors , 7003864900000000000♠8,649 .5 billion 7002736000000000000♠736                , 7004229200000000000♠22,920 .0 billion 7003376300000000000♠3,763           , 7004206330000000000♠20,633 .8 billion 7003290800000000000♠2,908           , 7003614100000000000♠6,141 .96 billion 571           , 7004212250000000000♠21,225 .1 billion 7003467100000000000♠4,671                , 7004206430000000000♠20,643 .2 billion 7003446400000000000♠4,464           , 7003759200000000000♠7,592 .8 billion 7003117200000000000♠1,172           , 7004116660000000000♠11,666 .8 billion 7003414000000000000♠4,140          

History

Year founded

Institution Founded Founding affiliation Harvard University 1636 as New College ( ) Yale University 1701 as Collegiate School (Congregationalist) University of Pennsylvania 1740 as Unnamed Charity School , founded by / members Princeton University 1746 as College of New Jersey Nonsectarian, founded by Columbia University 1754 as King's College Brown University 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations , founding charter promises "no religious tests" and "full liberty of conscience" Dartmouth College 1769 (Congregationalist) Cornell University 1865 Nonsectarian Note: Six of the eight Ivy League universities consider their founding dates to be simply the date that they received their charters and thus became legal corporations with the authority to grant academic degrees. Harvard University uses the date that the legislature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony formally allocated funds for the creation of a college. Harvard was chartered in 1650, although classes had been conducted for approximately a decade by then. The University of Pennsylvania initially considered its founding date to be 1750; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Later in Penn's early history, the university changed its officially recognized founding date to 1749, which was used for all of the nineteenth century, including a centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, Penn's board of trustees formally adopted a third founding date of 1740, in response to a petition from Penn's General Alumni Society. Penn was chartered in 1755, the same year collegiate classes began. "Religious affiliation" refers to financial sponsorship, formal association with, and promotion by, a religious denomination. All of the schools in the Ivy League are private and not currently associated with any religion.

Origin of the name

, 2007: Hollis Hall, Stoughton Hall, and Holworthy Hall Brown's Front Green, 2012: Hope College, Manning Hall, , and Slater Hall Yale's , 2012: Durfee Hall, Battell Chapel, Farnham Hall, and Lawrence Hall On the Dartmouth Green, 2007: Dartmouth Hall and Thornton Hall

Students have long revered the ivied walls of older colleges. "Planting the ivy" was a customary class day ceremony at many colleges in the 1800s. In 1893, an alumnus told , "In 1850, class day was placed upon the University Calendar.... the custom of planting the ivy, while the ivy oration was delivered, arose about this time." At Penn, graduating seniors started the custom of planting ivy at a university building each spring in 1873 and that practice was formally designated as "" in 1874.Ivy planting ceremonies are reported for Yale,, and many others. Princeton's "Ivy Club" was founded in 1879.

The first usage of Ivy in reference to a group of colleges is from sportswriter (1895–1965).

A proportion of our eastern ivy colleges are meeting little fellows another Saturday before plunging into the strife and the turmoil.

— Stanley Woodward, , October 14, 1933, describing the football season

The first known instance of the term Ivy League being used appeared in on February 7, 1935. Several sportswriters and other journalists used the term shortly later to refer to the older colleges, those along the northeastern seaboard of the United States, chiefly the nine institutions with origins dating from the , together with the (West Point), the , and a few others. These schools were known for their long-standing traditions in intercollegiate athletics, often being the first schools to participate in such activities. However, at this time, none of these institutions made efforts to form an athletic league.

A common attributes the name to the Roman numeral for four (IV), asserting that there was such a sports league originally with four members. The Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins helped to perpetuate this belief. The supposed "IV League" was formed over a century ago and consisted of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and a fourth school that varies depending on who is telling the story. However, it is clear that , , and met on November 23, 1876 at the so-called Massasoit Convention to decide on uniform rules for the emerging game of American football, which rapidly spread.

Pre–Ivy League

Chancellor Green Library at Princeton, 2007 Robinson Hall at Brown, 2009 Cornell baseball player, 1908

Seven out of the eight Ivy League schools were founded before the ; Cornell was founded just after the . These seven were the primary colleges in the Northern and Middle Colonies, and their early faculties and founding boards were largely drawn from other Ivy League institutions. There were also some British graduates from the , the , the , the , and elsewhere on their boards. Similarly, the founder of , in 1693, was a British graduate of the University of Edinburgh. Cornell provided with its .

The influence of these institutions on the founding of other colleges and universities is notable. This included the Southern public college movement which blossomed in the decades surrounding the turn of the 19th century when Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia established what became the flagship universities for each of these states. In 1801, a majority of the first board of trustees for what became the were Princeton alumni. They appointed , a Brown graduate, as the university's first president. , an Oxford alumnus and University of Pennsylvania faculty member, became the second president of the South Carolina college. The founders of the came from Yale, hence the school colors of University of California are and California Gold.

Some of the Ivy League schools have identifiable roots, while others were founded as non-sectarian schools. King's College broke up during the Revolution and was reformed as public nonsectarian . In the early nineteenth century, the specific purpose of training Calvinist ministers was handed off to theological seminaries, but a denominational tone and such relics as compulsory chapel often lasted well into the twentieth century. Penn and Brown were officially founded as nonsectarian schools. Brown's charter promised no religious tests and "full liberty of conscience", but placed control in the hands of a board of twenty-two Baptists, five Quakers, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians. Cornell has been strongly nonsectarian from its founding.

"Ivy League" is sometimes used as a way of referring to an , even though institutions such as Cornell University were among the first in the United States to reject racial and gender discrimination in their admissions policies. This dates back to at least 1935. Novels and memoirs attest this sense, as a social elite; to some degree independent of the actual schools.

After the , the present Ivy League institutions slowly widened their selection of their students. They had always had distinguished faculties; some of the first Americans with had taught for them; but they now decided that they could not both be world-class research institutions and be competitive in the highest ranks of American college sport; in addition, the schools experienced the scandals of any other big-time football programs, although more quietly.

History of the athletic league

Yale University's four-oared crew team, posing with the 1876 Centennial trophy. The 1879 Brown baseball varsity, with seated second from right; White's appearance in an 1879 major league game, the first for an African American, came 68 years before permanently broke the Penn's ICAA track champions in 1907

19th and early 20th centuries

The first formal athletic league involving eventual Ivy League schools (or any US colleges, for that matter) was created in 1870 with the formation of the . The RAAC hosted a de facto national championship in rowing during the period 1870–1894. In 1895, Cornell, Columbia, and Penn founded the , which remains the oldest collegiate athletic organizing body in the US. To this day, the IRA Championship Regatta determines the national champion in rowing and all of the Ivies are regularly invited to compete.

A basketball league was later created in 1902, when Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Yale and Princeton formed the ; they were later joined by Penn and Dartmouth.

In 1906, the organization that eventually became the was formed, primarily to formalize rules for the emerging sport of football. But of the 39 original member colleges in the NCAA, only two of them (Dartmouth and Penn) later became Ivies.

In February 1903, intercollegiate wrestling began when Yale accepted a challenge from Columbia, published in the Yale News. The dual meet took place prior to a basketball game hosted by Columbia and resulted in a tie. Two years later, Penn and Princeton also added wrestling teams, leading to the formation of the student-run Intercollegiate Wrestling Association, now the (EIWA), the first and oldest collegiate wrestling league in the US.

In 1930, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Penn, Princeton and Yale formed the ; they were later joined by Harvard, Brown, Army and Navy.

Before the formal establishment of the Ivy League, there was an "unwritten and unspoken agreement among certain Eastern colleges on athletic relations". The earliest reference to the "Ivy colleges" came in 1933, when of the used it to refer to the eight current members plus Army. In 1935, the reported on an example of collaboration between the schools:

The athletic authorities of the so-called "Ivy League" are considering drastic measures to curb the increasing tendency toward riotous attacks on goal posts and other encroachments by spectators on playing fields.

— The Associated Press, The New York Times

Despite such collaboration, the universities did not seem to consider the formation of the league as imminent. , Cornell's manager of athletics, reported the situation in January 1936 as follows:

I can say with certainty that in the last five years—and markedly in the last three months—there has been a strong drift among the eight or ten universities of the East which see a good deal of one another in sport toward a closer bond of confidence and cooperation and toward the formation of a common front against the threat of a breakdown in the ideals of amateur sport in the interests of supposed expediency.

Please do not regard that statement as implying the organization of an Eastern conference or even a poetic "Ivy League". That sort of thing does not seem to be in the cards at the moment.

Within a year of this statement and having held month-long discussions about the proposal, on December 3, 1936, the idea of "the formation of an Ivy League" gained enough traction among the undergraduate bodies of the universities that the , , , , , and the would simultaneously run an editorial entitled "Now Is the Time", encouraging the seven universities to form the league in an effort to preserve the ideals of athletics. Part of the editorial read as follows:

The Ivy League exists already in the minds of a good many of those connected with football, and we fail to see why the seven schools concerned should be satisfied to let it exist as a purely nebulous entity where there are so many practical benefits which would be possible under definite organized association. The seven colleges involved fall naturally together by reason of their common interests and similar general standards and by dint of their established national reputation they are in a particularly advantageous position to assume leadership for the preservation of the ideals of intercollegiate athletics.

The Ivies have been competing in sports as long as intercollegiate sports have existed in the United States. Rowing teams from Harvard and Yale met in the first sporting event held between students of two U.S. colleges on , , on August 3, 1852. Harvard's team, "The Oneida", won the race and was presented with trophy black walnut oars from then presidential nominee General . The proposal did not succeed—on January 11, 1937, the athletic authorities at the schools rejected the "possibility of a heptagonal league in football such as these institutions maintain in basketball, baseball and track." However, they noted that the league "has such promising possibilities that it may not be dismissed and must be the subject of further consideration."

Post–World War II

Students of Yale College, 1866

In 1945 the presidents of the eight schools signed the first Ivy Group Agreement, which set academic, financial, and athletic standards for the teams. The principles established reiterated those put forward in the Harvard-Yale-Princeton Presidents' Agreement of 1916. The Ivy Group Agreement established the core tenet that an applicant's ability to play on a team would not influence admissions decisions:

The members of the Group reaffirm their prohibition of athletic scholarships. Athletes shall be admitted as students and awarded financial aid only on the basis of the same academic standards and economic need as are applied to all other students.

In 1954, the presidents extended the Ivy Group Agreement to all intercollegiate sports, effective with the 1955–56 basketball season. This is generally reckoned as the formal formation of the Ivy League. As part of the transition, Brown, the only Ivy that hadn't joined the EIBL, did so for the 1954–55 season. A year later, the Ivy League absorbed the EIBL. The Ivy League claims the EIBL's history as its own. Through the EIBL, it is the oldest basketball conference in Division I.

As late as the 1960s many of the Ivy League universities' undergraduate programs remained open only to men, with Cornell the only one to have been coeducational from its founding (1865) and Columbia being the last (1983) to become . Before they became coeducational, many of the Ivy schools maintained extensive social ties with nearby , including weekend visits, dances and parties inviting Ivy and Seven Sisters students to mingle. This was the case not only at and , which are adjacent to Columbia and Harvard, but at more distant institutions as well. The movie includes a satiric version of the formerly common visits by Dartmouth men to Massachusetts to meet and women, a drive of more than two hours. As noted by Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, and Elizabeth DeBra, "The ' was the name given to Barnard, Smith, Mount Holyoke, , , , and Radcliffe, because of their parallel to the Ivy League men’s colleges."

In 1982 the Ivy League considered adding two members, with Army, Navy, and as the most likely candidates; if it had done so, the league could probably have avoided being moved into the recently created Division I-AA (now Division I FCS) for football. In 1983, following the admission of women to Columbia College, Columbia University and Barnard College entered into an athletic consortium agreement by which students from both schools compete together on Columbia University women's athletic teams, which replaced the women's teams previously sponsored by Barnard.

When Army and Navy departed the Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League in 1992, all intercollegiate competition involving the eight schools became united under the Ivy League banner.

Academics

Admissions

Admission statistics (Class of 2022) Applicants Admission rates Brown 35,438 7.2% Columbia 40,203 5.5% Cornell 51,328 10.3% Dartmouth 22,033 8.7% Harvard 42,749 4.59% Penn 44,482 8.39% Princeton 35,370 5.5% Yale 35,306 6.31%

The Ivy League schools are highly selective, with acceptance rates since 2000 ranging from 6 to 16 percent at each of the universities. Admitted students come from around the world, although students from and the make up a significant proportion of students.

Prestige

See also:

Members of the League have been highly ranked by various . In addition to the broad rankings listed in the accompanying chart, several Ivy League schools are highly ranked in the current 2018 US News & World Report assessment of Best Undergraduate Teaching: 1. Princeton; 2. Dartmouth; 3. Brown; 10. Yale.

National academic rankings University
(in alphabetical order)
(2017)
(2017)
(2018)
(2017) Brown 101-150 9 14 41 Columbia 8 14 5 16 Cornell 14 15 14 32 Dartmouth 201-300 12 11 27 Harvard 1 1 2 2 Penn 17 7 8 7 Princeton 6 4 1 11 Yale 11 3 3 10

Further, Ivy League members have produced many , winners of the and the . According to the Nobel Foundation's website, as of 2016 the number of prize-winners affiliated with each Ivy League university at the time of their awards is: Brown, 2; Columbia, 17; Cornell, 8; Dartmouth, 0; Harvard, 36; Penn, 4; Princeton, 14; and Yale, 8. In addition, each university self-reports their number of affiliated Nobel laureates, but they use varying definitions for which Nobel winners they claim (for example, alumni, active faculty, former faculty, visiting faculty, adjunct faculty, etc.)

Collaboration

Collaboration between the member schools is illustrated by the student-led that meets in the fall and spring of each year, with representatives from every Ivy League school. The governing body of the Ivy League is the Council of Ivy Group Presidents, composed of each university president. During meetings, the presidents often discuss common procedures and initiatives for the universities.

Culture

Fashion and lifestyle

See also: , , , and

Statue of on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania, 2011

Different fashion trends and styles have emerged from Ivy League campuses over time, and fashion trends such as and are styles often associated with the Ivy League and its culture.

is a style of men's dress, popular during the late 1950s, believed to have originated on Ivy League campuses. The clothing stores and represent perhaps the quintessential Ivy League dress manner. The Ivy League style is said to be the predecessor to the style of dress.

Preppy fashion started around 1912 to the late 1940s and 1950s as the Ivy League style of dress. represents the quintessential preppy clothing brand, stemming from the collegiate traditions that shaped the preppy subculture. In the mid-twentieth century J. Press and , both being pioneers in preppy fashion, had stores on Ivy League school campuses, including , , and .

Some typical preppy styles also reflect traditional upper class leisure activities, such as , or , , , , , , , and . Longtime New England outdoor outfitters, such as , became part of conventional preppy style. This can be seen in sport stripes and colours, equestrian clothing, plaid shirts, field jackets and nautical-themed accessories. Vacationing in , long popular with the East Coast upper class, led to the emergence of bright colour combinations in leisure wear seen in some brands such as . By the 1980s, other brands such as , and became associated with preppy style.

Today, these styles continue to be popular on Ivy League campuses, throughout the U.S., and abroad, and are oftentimes labeled as "Classic American style" or "Traditional American style".

Social elitism

The A.D. White Reading Room at Cornell's , 2008 A cartoon portrait of the stereotypical Columbia man, 1902

The Ivy League is often associated with the community of the , , or more generally, the and upper classes. Although most Ivy League students come from upper middle- and upper-class families, the student body has become increasingly more economically and ethnically diverse. The universities provide significant financial aid to help increase the enrollment of lower income and middle class students. Several reports suggest, however, that the proportion of students from less-affluent families remains low.

Phrases such as "Ivy League snobbery" are ubiquitous in nonfiction and fiction writing of the early and mid-twentieth century. A character dreads "the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges". A business writer, warning in 2001 against discriminatory hiring, presented a cautionary example of an attitude to avoid (the bracketed phrase is his):

We Ivy Leaguers [read: mostly white and Anglo] know that an Ivy League degree is a mark of the kind of person who is likely to succeed in this organization.

The phrase Ivy League historically has been perceived as connected not only with academic excellence, but also with social elitism. In 1936, sportswriter noted that student editors at , , , , , , and were advocating the formation of an athletic association. In urging them to consider " and and and and and and " as candidates for membership, he exhorted:

It would be well for the proponents of the Ivy League to make it clear (to themselves especially) that the proposed group would be inclusive but not "exclusive" as this term is used with a slight up-tilting of the tip of the nose.

Aspects of Ivy stereotyping were illustrated during the 1988 presidential election, when (Yale '48) derided (graduate of Harvard Law School) for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique."New York Times columnist asked "Wasn't this a case of the pot calling the kettle elite?" Bush explained, however, that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it.... Harvard boutique to me has the connotation of liberalism and elitism" and said Harvard in his remark was intended to represent "a philosophical enclave" and not a statement about class. Columnist opined that "Voters inclined to loathe and fear elite Ivy League schools rarely make fine distinctions between Yale and Harvard. All they know is that both are full of rich, fancy, stuck-up and possibly dangerous intellectuals who never sit down to supper in their no matter how hot the weather gets." Still, the last five presidents have all attended Ivy League schools for at least part of their education— George H. W. Bush (Yale undergrad), (Yale Law School), (Yale undergrad, Harvard Business School), (Columbia undergrad, Harvard Law School), and (Penn undergrad).

U.S. presidents in the Ivy League

See also:

Of the 45 men who have served as , 16 have graduated from an Ivy League university. Of them, eight have degrees from Harvard, five from Yale, three from Columbia, two from Princeton and one from Penn. Twelve presidents have earned Ivy undergraduate degrees. Three of these were transfer students: Donald Trump transferred from , Barack Obama transferred from Occidental College and John F. Kennedy transferred from another Ivy, Princeton, where he had been class of 1939. was the first president to graduate from college, graduating from Harvard in 1755.

Student demographics

Racial and/or ethnic background (2011)
(of any race) Other/
international Unknown Brown 14% 6% 10% 45% 14% 11% Columbia 15% 8% 13% 41% 17% 6% Cornell 17% 6% 10% 46% 13% 10% Dartmouth 14% 8% 9% 48% 13% 8% Harvard 12% 7% 9% 45% 22% 6% Penn 19% 7% 8% 46% 13% 7% Princeton 18% 7% 8% 49% 15% 3% Yale 15% 6% 8% 58% 5% 8% United States 5% 13% 17% 63% 4% NA

Geographic distribution

Students of the Ivy League largely hail from , largely from the , , and areas. As all eight Ivy League universities are within the Northeast, it is no surprise that most graduates end up working and residing in the Northeast after graduation. An unscientific survey of Harvard seniors from the Class of 2013 found that 42% hailed from the Northeast and 55% overall were planning on working and residing in the Northeast. Boston and New York City are traditionally where many Ivy League graduates end up living.

Socioeconomics and social class

Students of the Ivy League, both graduate and undergraduate, come primarily from and families. In recent years, however, the universities have looked towards increasing socioeconomic and class diversity, by providing greater financial aid packages to applicants from , , and American families.

In 2013, 46% of Harvard undergraduate students came from families in the top 3.8% of all American households (i.e., over 0,000 annual income). In 2012, the bottom 25% of the American income distribution accounted for only 3–4% of students at Brown, a figure that had remained unchanged since 1992. In 2014, 69% of incoming freshmen students at Yale College came from families with annual incomes of over 0,000, putting most Yale College students in the upper middle and/or upper class. (The median household income in the U.S. in 2013 was ,700.)

In the 2011–2012 academic year, students qualifying for (federally funded scholarships on the basis of need) comprised 20% at Harvard, 18% at Cornell, 17% at Penn, 16% at Columbia, 15% at Dartmouth and Brown, 14% at Yale, and 12% at Princeton. Nationally, 35% of American university students qualify for a Pell Grant.

Competition and athletics

Brown (right) plays at Cornell's Homecoming game, October 2017. The Yale Bowl in 2001 during the annual football game played between Harvard and Yale

Ivy champions are recognized in sixteen men's and sixteen women's sports. In some sports, Ivy teams actually compete as members of another league, the Ivy championship being decided by isolating the members' records in play against each other; for example, the six league members who participate in do so as members of , but an Ivy champion is extrapolated each year. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference to institute a conference postseason tournament; the first tournaments for men and women were held at the end of the 2016–17 season. The tournaments only award the Ivy League automatic bids for the NCAA Division I and Basketball Tournaments; the official conference championships continue to be awarded based solely on regular-season results. Before the 2016–17 season, the automatic bids were based solely on regular-season record, with a (or series of one-game playoffs if more than two teams were tied) held to determine the automatic bid. The Ivy League is one of only two Division I conferences which award their official basketball championships solely on regular-season results; the other is the . Since its inception, an Ivy League school has yet to win either the men's or women's Division I NCAA Basketball Tournament.

On average, each Ivy school has more than 35 varsity teams. All eight are in the top 20 for number of sports offered for both men and women among Division I schools. Unlike most Division I athletic conferences, the Ivy League prohibits the granting of athletic scholarships; all scholarships awarded are need-based (). In addition, the Ivies have a rigid policy against , even for medical reasons; an athlete loses a year of eligibility for every year enrolled at an Ivy institution.Ivy League teams' non-league games are often against the members of the , which have similar academic standards and athletic scholarship policies (although unlike the Ivies, the Patriot League allows redshirting).

In the time before for college sports became dominated by those offering athletic scholarships and lowered academic standards for athletes, the Ivy League was successful in many sports relative to other universities in the country. In particular, Princeton won 26 recognized national championships in (last in 1935), and Yale won 18 (last in 1927). Both of these totals are considerably higher than those of other historically strong programs such as , which has won 15, , which claims 11 but is credited by many sources with 13, and , which has won 11. Yale, whose coach was the "Father of American Football," held on to its place as the all-time wins leader in college football throughout the entire 20th century, but was finally passed by on November 10, 2001. Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Penn each have over a dozen former scholar-athletes enshrined in the . Currently Dartmouth holds the record for most Ivy League football titles, with 18, followed closely by Harvard and Penn, each with 17 titles. In addition, the Ivy League has produced winners (), two-time (), (Brown), selection (), (), (Cornell) and "" ().

Beginning with the 1982 football season, the Ivy League has competed in Division I-AA (renamed in 2006). The Ivy League teams are eligible for the FCS tournament held to determine the national champion, and the league champion is eligible for an automatic bid (and any other team may qualify for an at-large selection) from the NCAA. However, the Ivy League has not played any postseason games at all since 1956 due to the league's concerns about the extended December schedule's effects on academics. For this reason, any Ivy League team invited to the FCS playoffs turns down the bid. The Ivy League plays a strict 10-game schedule, compared to other FCS members' schedules of 11 (or, in some seasons, 12) regular season games, plus post-season, which was most recently expanded in to five rounds with 24 teams, with a bye week for the top eight teams. Football is the only sport in which the Ivy League declines to compete for a national title.

In addition to varsity football, Penn, Princeton and Cornell also field teams in the eight-team , in which all players must weigh 172 pounds or less. Penn and Princeton are the last remaining founding members of the league from its 1934 debut, and Cornell is the next-oldest, joining in 1937. Yale and Columbia previously fielded teams in the league but no longer do so.

Teams

The Ivy League is home to some of the oldest teams in the United States. Although these teams are not "varsity" sports, they compete annually in the .

Historical results

Total championships won (1956–2017) Institution Ivy League
Championships NCAA Team
Championships Princeton University Tigers 476 12 Harvard University Crimson 415 4 Cornell University Big Red 231 5 University of Pennsylvania Quakers 210 3 Yale University Bulldogs 202 3 Dartmouth College Big Green 140 3 Brown University Bears 123 7 Columbia University Lions 105 11

The table above includes the number of team championships won from the beginning of official Ivy League competition (1956–57 academic year) through 2016-17. Princeton and Harvard have on occasion won ten or more Ivy League titles in a year, an achievement accomplished 10 times by Harvard and 24 times by Princeton, including a conference-record 15 championships in 2010–11. Only once has one of the other six schools earned more than eight titles in a single academic year (Cornell with nine in 2005–06). In the 38 academic years beginning 1979–80, Princeton has averaged 10 championships per year, one-third of the conference total of 33 sponsored sports.

In the 12 academic years beginning 2005–06 Princeton has won championships in 31 different sports, all except wrestling and men's tennis.

Rivalries

Built in 1927, Penn's is shown around 2006

Rivalries run deep in the Ivy League. For instance, Princeton and are longstanding ; "Puck Frinceton" T-shirts are worn by Quaker fans at games. In only 11 instances in the history of Ivy League basketball, and in only seven seasons since Yale's 1962 title, has neither Penn nor Princeton won at least a share of the Ivy League title in basketball, with Princeton champion or co-champion 26 times and Penn 25 times. Penn has won 21 outright, Princeton 19 outright. Princeton has been a co-champion 7 times, sharing 4 of those titles with Penn (these 4 seasons represent the only times Penn has been co-champion). Harvard won its first title of either variety in 2011, losing a dramatic play-off game to Princeton for the NCAA tournament bid, then rebounded to win outright championships in , , and . Harvard also won the 2013 Great Alaska Shootout, defeating TCU to become the only Ivy League school to win the now-defunct tournament.

Rivalries exist between other Ivy league teams in other sports, including , Harvard and Princeton in swimming, and Harvard and Penn in football (Penn and Harvard have won 28 Ivy League Football Championships since 1982, Penn-16; Harvard-12). During that time Penn has had 8 undefeated Ivy League Football Championships and Harvard has had 6 undefeated Ivy League Football Championships. In , and are perennial rivals, and they are the only two Ivy League teams to have won the NCAA tournament. In 2009, the Big Red and Tigers met for their 70th game in the . No team other than Harvard or Princeton has won the men's swimming conference title outright since 1972, although Yale, Columbia, and Cornell have shared the title with Harvard and Princeton during this time. Similarly, no program other than Princeton and Harvard has won the women's swimming championship since Brown's 1999 title. Princeton or Cornell has won every indoor and outdoor track and field championship, both men's and women's, every year since 2002–03, with one exception (Columbia women won indoor championship in 2012). Harvard and Yale are and rivals although the competition has become unbalanced; Harvard has won all but one of the last 15 football games and all but one of the last 13 crew races.

Intra-conference football rivalries

Teams Name Trophy First met Games played Series record Columbia-Cornell Empire State Bowl Empire Cup 1889 103 games 36–64–3 Cornell-Penn None Trustee's Cup 1893 122 games 46–71–5 Dartmouth-Princeton None Sawhorse Dollar 1897 95 games 48–43–4 Harvard-Yale The Game None 1875 132 games 59–65–8 Princeton-Yale None None 1873 138 games 52–76–10

The Yale-Princeton series is the nation's second longest, exceeded only by between and , which began later in 1884 but included two or three games in each of 17 early seasons. For the first three decades of the Yale-Princeton rivalry, the two played their season-ending game at a neutral site, usually New York City, and with one exception (1890: Harvard), the winner of the game also won at least a share of the that year, covering the period 1869 through 1903. This phenomenon of a finale contest at a neutral site for the national title created a social occasion for the society elite of the metropolitan area akin to a in the era prior to the establishment of the in 1920. These football games were also financially profitable for the two universities, so much that they began to play baseball games in New York City as well, drawing record crowds for that sport also, largely from the same social demographic. In a period when the only professional sports were fledgling baseball leagues, these high-profile early contests between Princeton and Yale played a role in popularizing spectator sports, demonstrating their financial potential and raising public awareness of Ivy universities at a time when few people attended college.

Extra-conference football rivalries

Teams Name Trophy First met Games played Series record Brown- None 1909 98 games 70–26–2 Columbia- None 1890 22 games 12–10–0 Cornell- None None 1896 95 games 48–44–3 Dartmouth- Granite Bowl Trophy 1901 37 games 17–18–2 Harvard- None None 1904 67 games 41–24–2 Penn- None None 1882 90 games 63–23–4 Penn- None None 1885 56 games 43-13 Princeton- None None 1869 71 games 53–17–1 Yale- None None 1893 45 games 22–16–8

Championships

NCAA team championships

This list, which is current through July 1, 2015, includes NCAA championships and women's (one each for Yale and Dartmouth). Excluded from this list are all other national championships earned , including football titles and retroactive .

  1. ^ The NCAA started sponsoring the intercollegiate golf championship in 1939, but it retained the titles from the 41 championships previously conferred by the National Intercollegiate Golf Association in its records. Of these pre-NCAA titles, Yale, Princeton, Harvard and Dartmouth won 20, 11, 6 and 1, respectively.

See also: and

Athletic facilities

Football stadium Basketball arena Baseball field Hockey rink Soccer stadium School Name Capacity Year Name Capacity Year Name Capacity Year Name Capacity Year Name Capacity Year 7004200000000000000♠20,000 1925 7003280000000000000♠2,800 1989 7003100000000000000♠1,000 1959 7003310000000000000♠3,100 1961 7003350000000000000♠3,500 1979 7004170000000000000♠17,000 1984 7003340800000000000♠3,408 1974 N/A N/A Non-hockey school 7003350000000000000♠3,500 1985 7004255970000000000♠25,597 1915 7003447200000000000♠4,472 1990 7002500000000000000♠500 1922 7003426700000000000♠4,267 1957 7003100000000000000♠1,000 2000 7004156000000000000♠15,600 1923 7003210000000000000♠2,100 1986 7003200000000000000♠2,000 2008 7003450000000000000♠4,500 1975 7003160000000000000♠1,600 2007 7004308980000000000♠30,898 1903 7003219500000000000♠2,195 1926 7003160000000000000♠1,600 1898 7003285000000000000♠2,850 1956 7003250000000000000♠2,500 2010 7004525930000000000♠52,593 1895 The 7003872200000000000♠8,722 1927 7002850000000000000♠850 2000 7003250000000000000♠2,500 1972 7003170000000000000♠1,700 2002 7004278000000000000♠27,800 1998 7003685400000000000♠6,854 1969 7002850000000000000♠850 1961 7003209400000000000♠2,094 1923 7003300000000000000♠3,000 2008 7004614460000000000♠61,446 1914 7003310000000000000♠3,100 1932 7003620000000000000♠6,200 1927 7003348600000000000♠3,486 1958 7003300000000000000♠3,000 1981

Other Ivies

The term Ivy is often used to connote a positive comparison to or association with the Ivy League, often along academic lines. The term has been used to describe the , a grouping of small liberal arts colleges in the . Other uses include the , , and the . The 2007 edition of Newsweek's How to Get Into College Now, the editors designated 25 schools as "New Ivies".

Ivy Plus

The term Ivy Plus is sometimes used to refer to the Ancient Eight plus several other schools for purposes of alumni associations, university affiliations, or endowment comparisons. In his book Untangling the Ivy League, Zawel writes, "The inclusion of non–Ivy League schools under this term is commonplace for some schools and extremely rare for others. Among these other schools, and are almost always included. The and are often included as well." In their 2015 book Acing Admissions, Mehta and Dixit write, "The [Ivy Plus schools] include, but are not limited to: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford University and . Besides selectivity, these Ivy Plus colleges are thought to share similar values around academic and professional excellence, intellectual curiosity, leadership and civil engagement."

See also

  • —a grouping of small liberal arts colleges in the .
  • —seven liberal arts colleges all previously open to only enrollment by women considered the Ivy League of female-only colleges
  • —three private liberal arts colleges in Massachusetts and Connecticut (, , and ), in contrast to the (a term used to refer to Harvard, Yale, and Princeton) of the Ivy League.
  • —three private liberal arts colleges in Maine (, and ) known as the Maine Big Three contrasting also with the Ivy League's Big Three.
  • —schools of the Ivy League universities that offer medical education (both and ).
  • —schools of the Ivy League universities that offer various law degrees.
  • —schools of the Ivy League universities that offer various business degrees, especially the .
  • —complementary use of Ivy to characterize schools in the United States that showcase academic excellence.
  • —complementary use of Ivy to characterize .
  • —informal list of private historically black colleges that attracted a high number of top African American students.

Notes

  1. . Archived from on 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-01. 
  2. . Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  3. ^ . Archived from on 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2015-11-13. 
  4. . Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  5. . U.S. News & World Report. Archived from on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  6. and respectively
  7. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value" (published Jan. 28, 2014). . Retrieved 2018-02-13. 
  8. . Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  9. Fitzpatrick, Dan (2014-09-23). . The Wall Street Journal
  10. Clark, Brian E. (October 3, 2017). . Brown. Retrieved March 16, 2018
  11. . Brown University. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  12. Xia, Karen (October 18, 2017). . Columbia Spectator. Retrieved March 16, 2018
  13. . Retrieved 2018-02-13. 
  14. Walters, Karen (September 29, 2017). . Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved March 16, 2018
  15. . Dartmouth Office of Communications. September 13, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2018
  16. Dixon, Brandon J. (September 20, 2017). . The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved March 16, 2018
  17. (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  18. ^ . The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  19. . Princeton Office of Communications. October 9, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2018
  20. Conroy, Tom (October 10, 2017). . Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  21. The institution, though founded in 1636, did not receive its name until 1639. It was nameless for its first two years
  22. See for details of the circumstances of Penn's origin. Penn considered its founding date to be 1749 for over a century. In 1895, elite universities in the United States agreed that henceforth formal would place visiting dignitaries and other officials in the order of their institution's founding dates. Penn's periodical "The Alumni Register," published by the General Alumni Society, then began a grassroots campaign to retroactively revise the university's founding date to 1740, in order to appear older than , which had been chartered in 1746. In 1899, the Board of Trustees acceded to the alumni initiative and voted to change the founding date to 1740. The rationale offered in 1899 was that, in 1750, founder Benjamin Franklin and his original board of trustees purchased a completed but unused building and assumed an unnamed trust from a group which had hoped to begin a church and charity school in Philadelphia. This edifice was commonly called the "New Building" by local citizens and was referred to by such name in Franklin's memoirs as well as the legal bill of sale in Penn's archives. No name is stated or known for the associated educational trust, hence "Unnamed Charity School" serves as a placeholder to refer to the trust which is the premise for Penn's association with a founding date of 1740. The first named entity in Penn's early history was the 1751 secondary school for boys and charity school for indigent children called "Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania." Undergraduate education began in 1755 and the organization then changed its name to "College, Academy and Charity School of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania." Operation of the charity school was discontinued a few years later.
  23. Penn's website, like other sources, makes an important point of Penn's heritage being nonsectarian, associated with and the Academy of Philadelphia's nonsectarian board of trustees: "The goal of Franklin's nonsectarian, practical plan would be the education of a business and governing class rather than of clergymen.". Jencks and Riesman (2001) write "The Anglicans who founded the University of Pennsylvania, however, were evidently anxious not to alienate Philadelphia's Quakers, and they made their new college officially nonsectarian." In Franklin's 1749 founding 2007-10-18 at the ., religion is not mentioned directly as a subject of study, but he states in a footnote that the study of "History will also afford frequent Opportunities of showing the Necessity of a Publick Religion, from its Usefulness to the Publicks; the Advantage of a Religious Character among private Persons; the Mischiefs of Superstition, &c. and the Excellency of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION above all others antient or modern." Starting in 1751, the same trustees also operated a Charity School for Boys, whose curriculum combined "general principles of Christianity" with practical instruction leading toward careers in business and the "mechanical arts." , and thus might be described as "non-denominational Christian." The charity school was originally planned and a trust was organized on paper in 1740 by followers of travelling evangelist . The school was to have operated inside a church supported by the same group of adherents. But the organizers ran short of financing and, although the frame of the building was raised, the interior was left unfinished. The founders of the Academy of Philadelphia purchased the unused building in 1750 for their new venture and, in the process, assumed the original trust. Since 1899, Penn has claimed a founding date of 1740, based on the organizational date of the charity school and the premise that it had institutional identity with the Academy of Philadelphia. Whitefield was a firebrand Methodist associated with ; since the Methodists did not formally break from the Church of England until 1784, Whitefield in 1740 would be labelled , and in fact Brown University, emphasizing its own pioneering nonsectarianism, refers to Penn's origin as "Episcopalian". Penn is sometimes assumed to have Quaker ties (its athletic teams are called "Quakers," and the cross-registration alliance between Penn, Haverford, Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr is known as the "Quaker Consortium.") But Penn's website does not assert any formal affiliation with Quakerism, historic or otherwise, and implicitly asserts a non-Quaker origin for Penn when it states that "Founded in 1833, Haverford is the oldest institution of higher learning with Quaker roots in North America.". Archived from on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  24. Wikisource Addison, Daniel Dulany (1911). "". In Chisholm, Hugh. . 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 473–475. 
  25. . Brown.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  26. ^ . Princeton University. 
  27. Brown's website characterizes it as "the Baptist answer to Congregationalist Yale and Harvard; Presbyterian Princeton; and Episcopalian Penn and Columbia," but adds that at the time it was "the only one that welcomed students of all religious persuasions." Brown's charter stated that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." The charter called for twenty-two of the thirty-six trustees to be Baptists, but required that the remainder be "five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians."
  28. Hughes, Samuel (2002). . Pennsylvania Gazette. 100 (3). 
  29. . Archived from on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  30. Boston Daily Globe, Jun 27, 1882, p. 4: "CLASS DAY.: Yale Seniors Plant the Ivy, Sing "Blage," and Entertain the Beauty of New Haven;"
  31. Boston Evening Transcript, Jun 11, 1912, p. 12, "Simmons Seniors Hosts Class Day Exercises Late in Afternoon, Planting of the Ivy will be One of the Features;
  32. . The Gazette Times. June 9, 1907. Retrieved October 22, 2012. 
  33. . Archived from on 2011-10-14. 
  34. "Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  35. "The Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) Press, edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  36. entry for "Ivy League"
  37. The reports the "IV League" explanation, sourced only from the Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins.[]
  38. Various Ask Ezra student columns report the "IV League" explanation, apparently relying on the Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins as the sole source:
  39. . Upenn.edu. Archived from on June 6, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  40. . Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  41. . Resource.berkeley.edu. Archived from on 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  42. Epstein, Joseph (2003). Snobbery: The American Version. Houghton Mifflin.  .  p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern , the Ivy League colleges, and the among them."
  43. ^ Auchincloss, Louis (2004). East Side Story. Houghton Mifflin.  .  p. 179, "he dreaded the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges"
  44. McDonald, Janet (2000). Project Girl. University of California Press.  .  p. 163 "Newsweek is a morass of incest, nepotism, elitism, racism and utter classic white male patriarchal corruption.... It is completely Ivy League — a Vassar/Columbia J-School dumping ground... I will always be excluded, regardless of how many Ivy League degrees I acquire, because of the next level of hurdles: family connections and money."
  45. scandals: James Axtell, The Making of Princeton University (2006), p.274; quoting a former executive director of the Ivy League
  46. Robert Siegel, "Black Baseball Pioneer William White's 1879 Game," National Public Radio, broadcast Jan. 30, 2004 (audio at npr.org); Stefan Fatsis, , Wall Street Journal, Jan. 30, 2004; Peter Morris and Stefan Fatsis, "Baseball's Secret Pioneer: William Edward White, the first black player in major-league history," Slate, Feb. 4, 2014; , Baseball-Reference.com; Rick Harris, Brown University Baseball: A Legacy of the game (Charleston: The History Press, 2012), pp. 41–43
  47. . Columbia College Today. Archived from on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2014-09-04. 
  48. . The New York Times. Associated Press. 1935-12-06. p. 33. 
  49. Robert F. Kelley (1936-01-17). "Cornell Club Here Welcomes Lynah". The New York Times. p. 22. 
  50. "Immediate Formation of Ivy League Advocated at Seven Eastern Colleges". The New York Times. 1936-12-03. p. 33. 
  51. . Thecrimson.com. 1936-12-03. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  52. "Plea for an Ivy Football League Rejected by College Authorities". The New York Times. 1937-01-12. p. 26. 
  53. Gwertzman, Bernard M. (October 13, 1956). . The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  54. 2015-01-18 at the ., Sports-reference.com
  55. (PDF). Retrieved 2018-02-13. 
  56. . Ed.gov. Archived from on 2005-02-04. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  57. White, Gordon S. Jr. (1982-01-10). . The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  58. Alicia Mies, “University admits record low 7.2 percent of applicants to Class of 2022”, The Brown Daily Herald, March 28, 2018.
  59. Bonnie K. Goodman, "Columbia accepts record-low for the Class of 2023 just 5.5 percent acceptance rate", Medium, March 28, 2018.
  60. Meredith Liu, "Class of 2022 Has Lowest Admissions Rate, Most Diverse in School History", Cornell Daily Sun, March 28, 2018.
  61. The Dartmouth Senior Staff, "College admits record-low percent to the class of 2022", The Dartmouth, March 29, 2018.
  62. Delano R. Franklin & Samuel W. Zwickel, "Record-Low 4.59 Percent of Applicants Accepted to Harvard Class of 2022", The Harvard Crimson, March 29, 2018.
  63. Yoni Gutenmacher, "Penn admits a record-low 8.39 percent of applicants to the Class of 2022", The Daily Pennsylvanian, March 28, 2018.
  64. Mallory Williamson, "U. offers admission to 5.5 percent of students in most selective year yet", The Daily Princetonian, March 28, 2018.
  65. Anastasiia Posnova, "Yale admits 6.31 percent of applicants", Yale Daily News, March 28, 2018.
  66. Waldman, Peter (4 September 2014). . Bloomberg.com
  67. . U.S.News & World Report LP. Archived from on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-05-11. 
  68. Annicchiarico, Francesca; Weinstock, Samuel Y. (3 September 2013). . The Harvard Crimson
  69. . Academic Ranking of World Universities. 
  70. . Forbes
  71. . U.S. News & World Report. 
  72. . Washington Monthly
  73. . Nobelprize.org
  74. Elements of Fashion and Apparel Design. New Age Publishers. p. 25.  . Ivy League: A popular look for men in the fifties that originated on such campuses as Harvard, Priceton [] and Yale; a forerunner to the preppie look; a style characterized by button down collar shirts and pants with a small buckle in the back. 
  75. ^ Zlotnick, Sarah (February 24, 2012). . . 
  76. Peterson, Amy T.; Ann T. Kellogg (2008). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through American History 1900 to the Present: 1900–1949. ABC-CLIO. p. 285.  . 
  77. . Details
  78. Rapoport, Adam (31 March 2008). . GQ
  79. Epstein, Joseph (2003). Snobbery: The American Version. Houghton Mifflin.  .  p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." and Wolff, Robert Paul (1992). The Ideal of the University. Transaction Publishers.  .  p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League snobbery as it was of radical social critique."
  80. Greenblatt, Alan (19 September 2012). . NPR.org
  81. Orlet, Christopher (23 August 2012). . The American Spectator
  82. Feldman, Noah (2010-06-27). . The New York Times
  83. ^ Hayes, Robin J. (February 2014). . The Atlantic
  84. Time magazine, Noliwe M. Rooks, Feb. 27, 2013, , Retrieved Aug. 27, 2014, "...accessibility of these schools to students who are poor, minority ... the weight that Ivy League and other highly selective schools...unfortunate set of circumstances ... gifted minority, poor and working class students can benefit most from the educational opportunities..."
  85. August 26, 2014, Boston Globe (via NY Times), , Retrieved Aug. 30, 2014, "more elite group of 28 private colleges and universities, including all eight Ivy League members, ... from 2001 to 2009, ... enrollment of students from the bottom 40 percent of family incomes increased from just 10 percent to 11 percent...."
  86. Wolff, Robert Paul (1992). The Ideal of the University. Transaction Publishers.  .  p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League snobbery as it was of radical social critique."
  87. Williams, Mark (2001). The 10 Lenses: your guide to living and working in a multicultural world. Capital Books. ,
  88. Kieran, John (December 4, 1936). . The New York Times. p. 36. Retrieved May 30, 2017. There will now be a little test of 'the power of the press' in intercollegiate circles since the student editors at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Cornell, Columbia, Dartmouth and Penn are coming out in a group for the formation of an Ivy League in football. The idea isn't new.... It would be well for the proponents of the Ivy League to make it clear (to themselves especially) that the proposed group would be inclusive but not 'exclusive' as this term is used with a slight up-tilting of the tip of the nose." He recommended the consideration of "plenty of institutions covered with home-grown ivy that are not included in the proposed group. [such as ] Army and Navy and Georgetown and Fordham and Syracuse and Brown and Pitt, just to offer a few examples that come to mind" and noted that "Pitt and Georgetown and Brown and Bowdoin and Rutgers were old when Cornell was shining new, and Fordham and Holy Cross had some building draped in ivy before the plaster was dry in the walls that now tower high about Cayuga's waters. 
  89. Webster G. Tarpley; Anton Chaitkin. . Webster G. Tarpley. Retrieved 2006-12-17. 
  90. Dowd, Maureen (1998), "Bush Traces How Yale Differs From Harvard." The New York Times, June 11, 1998, p. 10
  91. Baker, Russell (1998), "The Ivy Hayseed." The New York Times, June 15, 1988, p. A31
  92. New York Sun, , September 26, 2008
  93. Columbia Law School, , September 25, 2008
  94. . www.nationaljournal.com. Archived from on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  95. "USA QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". U.S. Department of Commerce.  Missing or empty |url= (); |access-date= requires |url= ()
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  97. . Business Insider. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
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  100. . Alternet. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
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  108. (PDF). 2015–2016 SEC Women's Basketball Media Guide. Southeastern Conference. p. 54. Retrieved March 10, 2016. Since 1986, the SEC champion has been determined by the regular season schedule. 
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  110. Brown, C.L. (October 5, 2016). . ESPN.com. Retrieved October 8, 2016. It's easy to forget what Siyani Chambers has meant to Harvard as a three-time all-Ivy League player because he wasn't enrolled in school last season. The Ivy League doesn't allow redshirts, so Chambers was forced to withdraw after a preseason ACL injury if he wanted to return for his senior season. 
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